PHENYLPIRACETAM METHOD OF ACTION
Phenylpiracetam has 100% oral bioavailability and is absorbed rapidly through the gastrointestinal tract and various organs. Once absorbed into the blood stream, it can cross the blood-brain-barrier very easily. Phenylpiracetam is excreted 60% through urine and the remainder through bile. It is metabolized into 3-hydroxycarphedone & 4′-hydroxycarphedone. Phenylpiracetam becomes active within 1 hour after ingestion and its half-life is 3-5 hours.
Phenylpiracetam acts as a neuromodulator. It has significant effects on the cholinergic and glutamatergic systems. It binds to acetylcholine and glutamate receptors. Phenylpiracetam also increases the level of dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain which may explain its’ stimulating and mood elevating properties.
In regards to the exact method of action of phenylpiracetam, data is limited as with the other racetams. It is understood that it can increase the density of NDMA glutamate receptors in the hippocampus. Phenylpiracetam is also believed to stimulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the cortex and D3-Dopamine receptors in the striatum.
Phenylpiracetam has been seen to offer results in the area of physical performance. Although Phenylpiracetam is generally seen to have stimulating properties, no direct effect on the cardiovascular or respiratory systems have been observed. Phenylpiracetam has been noted to reduce the body’s pain tolerance threshold as well as adaptability to environmental stresses. Phenylpiracetam is also believed to help modulate loco-motor activity in the brain.
- Helps consolidate memory
- Facilitates learning processes
- Enhances Alertness & Focus
- Improves Physical Performance
- Improves Mood
PHENYLPIRACETAM SIDE EFFECTS
Phenylpiracetam carries the same common side effects and risks as most of the other racetams. This includes: headaches, nausea, irritability and gastrointestinal problems. Insomnia can also be experienced in some people due to the stimulating effects of phenylpiracetam. This side effect can often be avoided by reducing dosage or adjusting the time of administration as it has a relatively short half-life.
Phenylpiracetam can cause tolerance build up over time and much more quickly than some of the other racetams. It is not considered to be addictive however there are reports of addiction happening. Generally, it is not a nootropic to be taken even day because extended use will result in a loss of nootropic effects. Overall, phenylpiracetam can be seen to have a low addiction profile and should be considered relatively safe when used in the right context.
There have been zero reports of death or severe drug interactions with phenylpiracetam. No reports of phenylpiracetam overdose have been reported thus far. It should be considered safe when used in the right dosages. One should not exceed the recommended dosage and always consult a doctor before use. Some users may also be hypersensitive so it is always recommended to start administration at much lower dosages.